Dealing With Deprecations#
Deprecations are commonly used to allow APIs to evolve over time, by phasing out no-longer-fashionable API functions and replacing them with newer, cooler replacements. This page explains how libraries in the GNOME stack do deprecations, and what mechanisms they provide for an application developer—you—to deal with them.
One important thing to keep in mind is that ‘deprecated’ does not mean ‘broken’, or ‘unusable’. There is no need to rush into replacing every deprecated function by its replacement right away. The next major release of the library in question (which is the point at which deprecated API may be dropped) may be years away. Until that happens, it is perfectly fine to keep using the functions.
How does one recognize that a function is deprecated? Since a few years, the GNOME libraries annotates deprecations in their headers, like this:
GLIB_DEPRECATED_IN_2_26 void g_completion_clear_items (GCompletion* cmp); GLIB_DEPRECATED_IN_2_40_FOR(g_settings_schema_key_get_range) GVariant * g_settings_get_range (GSettings *settings, const gchar *key); GDK_DEPRECATED_IN_3_10 void gtk_window_reshow_with_initial_size (GtkWindow *window);
These annotations are defined as macros in the GLib headers, which expand to function attributes that cause the C compiler to warn when these functions are used.
In addition, the doc comments for deprecated functions contain a
/** * g_completion_clear_items: * @cmp: the #GCompletion. * * Removes all items from the #GCompletion. The items are not freed, so if the * memory was dynamically allocated, it should be freed after calling this * function. * * Deprecated:2.26: Rarely used API */ /** * g_settings_get_range: * @settings: a #GSettings * @key: the key to query the range of * * Queries the range of a key. * * Since: 2.28 * * Deprecated: 2.40: Use g_settings_schema_key_get_range() instead. */ /** * gtk_window_reshow_with_initial_size: * @window: a #GtkWindow * * Hides @window, then reshows it, resetting the * default size and position of the window. Used * by GUI builders only. * * Deprecated: 3.10: GUI builders can call gtk_widget_hide(), * gtk_widget_unrealize() and then gtk_widget_show() on @window * themselves, if they still need this functionality. */
If you are a library maintainer: it is important that the Deprecated tag contains not just the version in which the symbol was deprecated, but also an explanation of how to replace the symbol with non-deprecated API, if a replacement is possible.
GDK_DEPRECATED_IN_3_10 macro expands to a compiler
attribute — like
__attribute__((__deprecated__)), in GCC — which causes a
reasonably modern compiler to emit warnings when you compile your program; for
$ make testheaderbar CC testheaderbar.o testheaderbar.c: In function ‘main’: testheaderbar.c:192:3: warning: ‘gtk_window_reshow_with_initial_size’ is deprecated (declared at ../gtk/gtkwindow.h:419) [-Wdeprecated-declarations] gtk_window_reshow_with_initial_size (GTK_WINDOW (window)); ^ CCLD testheaderbar
Note that this is just a warning: the program was still successfully built.
When you decide to port your code away from deprecated symbols, you can ask
the compiler to turn deprecation warnings into errors; for instance, with
GCC, you can add
-Werror=deprecated-declarations to your compiler flags.
Ignoring all deprecation warnings#
If you want to ignore deprecation warnings you can either tell your compiler to
not emit warnings—for instance, with GCC, you can add
to your compiler flags. Or you can disable deprecation warnings for the
libraries that you’re using—for instance, by adding to your
add_project_arguments([ '-DGLIB_DISABLE_DEPRECATION_WARNINGS', '-DGTK_DISABLE_DEPRECATION_WARNINGS', ], language: 'c', )
Every library that provides deprecation annotations should also provide a way to disable them.
Selectively ignoring deprecation warnings#
Sometimes it is impractical to avoid certain deprecated functions, even though your code is otherwise deprecation-free. In this case, you probably don’t want to disable all deprecation warnings, and instead just selectively mark the code sections in which the deprecated functions are used:
G_GNUC_BEGIN_IGNORE_DEPRECATIONS gtk_window_reshow_with_initial_size (window); G_GNUC_END_IGNORE_DEPRECATIONS
Targeting specific library versions#
If your application was developed against a certain version of a library, say GLib 2.56, and you want to ensure that it continues to work on systems with this version of GLib, as well as newer versions, there are two things you need to worry about.
Newer versions of GLib may deprecate API that you are using. There is no reason for you to stop using it, since it was not deprecated in 2.56 (and the replacements will probably not be available in 2.56), but you also want to build your application with newer versions of GLib without warnings.
Even if your development system has a newer version of GLib, you want avoid using GLib API that was introduced after 2.56, to keep your application working on systems with GLib 2.56.
The deprecations and API additions in the GNOME stack are versioned, which lets
you achieve these goals by defining the range of versions of the APIs that your
application is expected to work with. This is done with a pair of macros, which
are typically defined in your
add_project_arguments([ '-DGLIB_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED=GLIB_VERSION_2_56', '-DGLIB_VERSION_MAX_ALLOWED=GLIB_VERSION_2_56', ], language: 'c', )
Each library has their own macros. For GLib, they are
GLIB_VERSION_MAX_ALLOWED. For GTK, they
The definition for these macros must encode the major and minor version in a
binary format. You can either use predefined values such as
GDK_VERSION_3_10, or use the
G_ENCODE_VERSION macro like this:
#define GLIB_VERSION_MIN_REQUIRED G_ENCODE_VERSION(2,56)
MAX_ALLOWED macros must be defined
before including the header for the corresponding library.