Themed Icons#

The GtkIconTheme API gives access to icons that are shipped with the icon theme.

Icon themes are sets of icons that share a common look and feel; a theme is a mapping between a name and an icon file and size.


For more information on icon themes, you can read the icon theme specification

Extending the icon theme#

Some times, applications need icons that are too domain-specific to be included in a generic icon theme.

There are various ways to ship icon assets as named icons:

  • resources (recommended)

  • files


It is possible to include application-specific icons directly in the application binary as resources, instead of installing them in the file system. By using resources you reduce the performance penalty of seeking files on the file system, and you improve the portability and reliability of your application. The downsides are that changing icons requires rebuilding your application, and that the size of the binary grows.

To use resources, place your icons in a directory structure that matches the hicolor icon theme:

  <gresource prefix="/my/resources/icons/16x16/actions">


When using resources, you don’t need to include ‘hicolor’ in the path.

Then, tell GtkIconTheme about the resource path where your icons are located:

GtkIconTheme *theme = gtk_icon_theme_get_for_display (gdk_display_get_default ());
gtk_icon_theme_add_resource_path (theme, "/my/resources/icons");


GtkApplication automatically sets up a resource path based on the application id of your application. If your applications id is ‘’, then icons will be looked for under “/org/my/App/icons”. Please, refer to the GtkApplication documentation for more information on automatic resources.


You can install the icons in a directory structure that matches the hicolor icon theme. Typically, the icons will be located in your application’s data directory, e.g. /usr/share/org.gnome.YourApp.

For instance, you can install icons from your Meson build file:

# Define PKG_DATADIR as a global symbol
pkg_datadir = get_option('prefix') / get_option('datadir') / meson.project_name()
add_project_arguments('-DPKG_DATADIR=@0@'.format(datadir), language: 'c')

# List the icons to install
action_icons_dir = pkg_datadir / 'icons/hicolor/16x16/actions'
action_icons = [

# Install the icons
install_data(action_icons, install_dir: action_icons_dir)

# Ensure that the directory matches the expected icon theme definition
  skip_if_destdir: true,

You will also need to tell GtkIconTheme to look in that directory:

GtkIconTheme *theme = gtk_icon_theme_get_for_display (gdk_display_get_default ());
gtk_icon_theme_append_search_path (theme, PKG_DATADIR "/icons");

It is recommended to follow the principles of the icon naming specification even for these private icons.

This approach to icon theme extension has some advantages over others:

  • the application-specific icons don’t pollute the shared namespace for themed icons, and other applications won’t unintentionally pick up an icon that was only meant for your application

  • since the icons are installed into a directory below ‘hicolor’, the theme can override the icons to make your application fit in with the rest of the system

Flipped icons#

Some icons benefit from being ‘flipped’ in right-to-left (RTL) locales. GTK does this automatically, by passing a GTK_ICON_LOOKUP_DIR_RTL or GTK_ICON_LOOKUP_DIR_LTR flag to GtkIconTheme when loading icons.

If you are loading icons manually using the GtkIconTheme API, you may want to do the same for icons where flipping is relevant.

Of course, RTL variants must be present in the icon theme for this to make any difference. If you have an icon with an RTL variant, you should append the -rtl suffix to the icon’s file base name.

Symbolic icons#

Symbolic icons have a simple form, and can be used much like text. They will be recolored according to the context in which they are used. By convention, symbolic icons are named with a -symbolic suffix.

Passing an icon name like “pan-start-symbolic” to GTK functions like gtk_image_set_from_icon_name() will automatically do the right thing. When you are manually loading a symbolic icon using the GtkIconTheme APIs, make sure to use the ‘symbolic’ variants, such as gtk_icon_info_load_symbolic() to ensure that the icon is properly colored.

When installing your own symbolic icons, you can either install an svg (the traditional form in which symbolic icons are created) or use the gtk-encode-symbolic-svg utility to convert the icon into specially crafted .symbolic.png files, which can be installed into the fixed-size subdirectories of the icon theme:

gtk-encode-symbolic-svg -o /usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/apps my-app-symbolic.svg 48x48

Application icons#

The icon theme specification defines a universal fallback theme, called hicolor, in which applications can install icons that need to be known by the rest of the system.

The main example for this is the application icon that is used in the applications desktop file. This icon should be named to match the application name, and be installed in /usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/apps/. Other sizes are optional, but a 256×256 icon is the default size used by GNOME in its application grid, so you’re strongly encouraged to provide one.

Applications are also encouraged to install a symbolic version of the application icon into the hicolor theme, with the same name and a -symbolic suffix. The symbolic icon will be used in the HighContrast theme. Symbolic icons can be installed as SVG, in the /usr/share/icons/hicolor/symbolic/apps directory (which was added to hicolor in 0.15), or as .symbolic.png files in /usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/apps/. Other sizes are optional.


Unlike other icons, application icons cannot be added to a GResource, as they are referenced by the desktop file and loaded by the desktop.